MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS

MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS
MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS (10th–11th century), rabbi and paytan. Born into a rabbinical family from lucca , his grandfather was R. Moses the Elder who was taught by Abu Aaron the secrets of the Kabbalah. Meshullam's father (see kalonymus family) was a well-known talmudic scholar and paytan. His teacher was solomon b. judah ha-bavli . Meshullam himself was a famous talmudist and liturgical poet, often called "the Great." His works include a commentary on Ethics of the Fathers, of which only one extract is extant; responsa, dealing with explanations of talmudic passages and with matrimonial, legal, and ritual matters and including a responsum against the Karaites; and liturgical poems, of which   the best known are a composition for the morning service of the Day of Atonement and "Ammiẓ Ko'aḥ," the version of the avodah adopted in the Ashkenazi rite. His responsa, apart from their intrinsic value, are important sources of information for the social and economic history of the Jewish communities of pre-Crusade Europe. He is the first author in Europe to mention the commercial law of Ma'arufya. His answers are usually brief and concise, and devoid of argumentation. His decisions are based mainly on the Babylonian Talmud but also refer to the writings of the geonim. Both gershom Me'or ha-Golah and rashi held Meshullam in high regard. The center of Meshullam's activity is uncertain. Responsa by sherira and hai gaon point to Italy as does the title "of Rome" sometimes given him. Later he settled in Mainz where his tombstone was discovered. His works helped to establish Rhineland scholarship and stimulated the development in France and Germany of a powerful poetical tradition. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rapoport, in: Bikkurei ha-Ittim, 10 (1829), 40–41, 111; 11 (1830), 100; Carmoly, in: Israelitische Annalen, 1 (1839), 222; Schirmann, Italyah, 27–36; Roth, Dark Ages, index; Zunz, Vortraege, 378; Zunz, Lit Poesie, 107; Wiener, in: MGWJ, 3 (1854), 236–7; Gross, ibid., 27 (1878), 249–50; Davidson, Oẓar, 4 (1933), 451 (index); Ginzei Schechter, 2 (1929), 194–235, 279–87. (Yonah David)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KALONYMUS — KALONYMUS, one of the most eminent Jewish families in Germany which flourished from the 9th to the 13th century, especially in the cities near the Rhine. Among its members were numerous rabbis, preachers, poets, teachers, authors, moralists, and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Famille Kalonymus — La famille Kalonymus ou Kalonymos est une famille de rabbins médiévaux originaire de Lucques en Toscane et dont une branche s est établie en Allemagne, à Spire et à Mayence. Son nom pourrait être une traduction en grec du nom hébreu Chemtov qui… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SOLOMON BEN JUDAH HA-BAVLI — (mid tenth century), Hebrew poet. One of the first Hebrew hymnologists in Europe. He appears to have lived in northern Italy though his family was of Oriental origin. Little is known of him apart from some semilegendary allusions to him as an… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • DAVID BEN MESHULLAM OF SPEYER — (12th century), liturgical poet. His father was apparently the scholar R. Meshullam who lived in Mainz in 1034. On Feb. 19, 1090, David was received in Speyer by Emperor Henry IV as representative of the Jewish community, together with Judah b.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Mordekhaï ben Hillel — …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph ben Nathan Official — was a French Jewish controversialist. He lived, probably at Sens, in the thirteenth century. He was a descendant of Kalonymus ben Todros, the nasi of Narbonne. His father held a public office to which Joseph probably succeeded, whence the surname …   Wikipedia

  • ISAAC BEN ASHER HA-LEVI — (known as Riba, initials of Rabbi Isaac Ben Asher; second half of 11th and beginning of 12th century), talmudist of Speyer, the first of the German tosafists. He was a pupil of rashi and the son in law of Rashi s colleague Eliakim b. Meshullam ha …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Kalonymos family — Kalonymos or Kalonymus (Hebrew: קלונימוס) is a prominent Jewish family originally from Lucca, Italy, which, after the settlement at Mayence and Speyer of several of its members, took during many generations a leading part in the development of… …   Wikipedia

  • POETRY — This article is arranged according to the following outline (for modern poetry, see hebrew literature , Modern; see also prosody ): biblical poetry introduction the search for identifiable indicators of biblical poetry the presence of poetry in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • PIYYUT — (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”